According to the IEA report made in collaboration with the UN Environment Programme in 2018, 39% of energy and process-related carbon emissions come from buildings and the construction industry. In the developing world and elsewhere, there are two main issues: existing buildings which are very inefficient in terms of energy use and new constructions that are developed at a high expense of embodied energy.
The city of Kigali aspires to be a center of urban excellence in Africa. This has been demonstrated by its inclusiveness and openness toward reviewing the master plan to address actual challenges and opportunities presented by new developments. There have been two major editions of the Kigali Master Plan: one in 2013 and another in 2020.
Increase in vehicular population has led to increase in road crashes. This is particularly very evident in low- and middle-income countries. Rwanda is no exception to this problem. While various factors influence the occurrence of a crash, it is argued that road design can make roads either safe or unsafe to drive. This research examines geometric parameters of roads in the City of Kigali, with emphasis on checking their safety parameters in comparison with design standards of AASHTO 2011.
Policies have been put in place to ensure effective feasibility of road projects, however, there has been lack of consensus on a methodology to guarantee sustainability upon assessment and analysis during road pavement design, construction and maintenance.